“The failure of Indians and African Americans to join together to battle Jim Crow was a legacy of European imperialism. Europeans had fostered and exploited divisions between African and Indians in the colonial period. With the removal of most southern Indians in the 1830s, southerners no longer needed to promote hostility. After the Civil War, when slavery had ceased to regulate race relations, elite white southerners turned instead to the segregation of white and “colored”. Classifying Indians and African Americans together as members of a “colored” underclass provoked Indian resistance, which they expressed not so much by assailing Jim Crow as by demanding their own separate institutions. In doing so, Indians transformed the racism they had learned under European tutelage into a nationalist struggle for sovereignty.”
— Excerpt from Theda Perdue’s essay, “Native Americans, African Americans, and Jim Crow”, which is included in “indiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas”.